Glossary
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Ammonia : compound of nitrogen. It's largely used in industry sector to produce fertilizers and as basic raw material in the chemical chain for producing Nylon and other plastics and fibres. It is also used to produce farm fertilizers.

ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) : a thermoplastic copolymer of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. It is used to make automotive body parts, electric and electronic appliances, household items, pipes.

Aromatics : one of the three principal groups or series of hydrocarbon compounds (paraffins, olefins, aromatics) that occurs naturally in crude oil, whose chemical structure is characterized by the presence of the aromatic ring.

Bcm/y : billion cubic meters per year.

Benzene (BZ) : aromatic hydrocarbon. It is mainly used as an intermediate to make other chemicals as styrene, which is used to make plastics, phenol for resins and adhesives, and cyclohexane, which is used in the manufacture of a raw material for Nylon production. Smaller amounts of benzene are used as solvent and to make some types of rubbers, dyes, drugs, explosives.

Butene : olefin hydrocarbon (see). It is classified into normal butene (including 1-butene, cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene) and isobutene. It holds an important position in the chemical industry. Its downstream products involve many different fields such as rubbers, plastics, etc.

Cogeneration plant : a single facility to simultaneously produce electric power and thermal energy.

Commissioning : series of activities and procedures undertaken in order to start operations of an industrial plant, gas pipeline, etc.

Dedusting system : unit for the removal of dust from gas.

Design-Build : a system of contracting under which one entity performs both architecture/engineering and construction under one single contract.

E&C (Engineering and Construction) : see EPC.

EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction) : a type of contract typical of industrial plant construction sector, comprising the provision of engineering services, procurement of materials and construction. The term "turnkey" indicates that the system is delivered to the client ready for operations, i.e. already commissioned.

EPCM : Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management.

EPCS : Engineering, Procurement, Construction Supervision.

Ethanol : mainly produced through fermentation of agricultural raw materials (biomass). It can also be produced by hydration of ethylene. It is used for various applications: drinks, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, solvents, chemicals and more and more often in fuels, either in the combined form of an additive to gasoline (ETBE: Ethyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether) or blended directly with the same.

Ethylene glycol :  the most common among glycols (similar to alcohols). It exists in the forms of Mono-Ethylene Glycol (MEG), Di-Ethylene Glycol (DEG) and Thri-Ethylene Glycol (TEG). As MEG it is mainly used as co-monomer to produce PET (see). It is also used as automotive antifreeze.

Ethylene oxide : chemical compound used as an intermediate in the production of ethylene glycol and other chemicals, like ethanolamines and detergents, and as a sterilizer for foods and medical supplies.

Facilities : auxiliary services, structures and installations required to support the main systems.

Fast track : a scheduling process in which design, procurement, construction and commissioning activities overlap. Design documents and equipment, and trade subcontracts may be released incrementally or in phases.

FEED (Front-End Engineering Design) : the planning and basic design phase aimed at defining all project details in order to minimize the uncertainties during the execution phase.

Feedstock : synonymous of raw material.

FGD : Flue Gas Desulphurization.

Gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) plant : plant for electric power production that uses 2 types of turbines (gas and steam).

Greenfield : a project located on semi-rural property that is underdeveloped except for agricultural use.

HDPE : high density polyethylene (see polyethylene).

Hydrocarbon : a compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon. It can be solid, liquid or gas.

Hydrocracking : conversion technology for producing high-value products, like gasoline, diesel and kerosene from a wide range of refinery feedstocks. It performs the catalytic cracking of the feedstock to lower molecular weight saturated hydrocarbons at high temperatures and pressures in presence of hydrogen.

Hydrotesting : operation involving pressurized water (higher than operational pressure) being pumped into a pipeline or vessel to ensure that it is leak free.

IPO : initial public offering (stock exchange listing).

JV : joint venture.

KTY : kilo tonnes per year.

LDPE : low density polyethylene (see polyethylene).

LLDPE : Linear Low Density Polyethylene (see polyethylene).

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) : it is obtained by cooling down natural gas to about minus 160°C at about athmospheric pressure. Gas is liquefied to make easier its transportation from the place of extraction to that of processing and/or utilisation.

Lump-Sum Project : a contract for a project awarded at a fixed price with a defined scope of work (for example E, EP, or EPC)

MEG : Mono Ethylene Glycol (see ethylene glycol).

OBCE (open book cost estimate) : type of contract where the lump sum price of the project (normally turnkey or EPC) is defined together with the client, in a transparent way (open book), after the signature of the contract and in an advanced stage of the execution of the FEED (see), after having jointly estimated and agreed the overall costs of the project such as engineering, equipment and construction, and with a pre agreed mark up to cover the margin, risks and contingencies.

Offshore/Onshore : the term offshore indicates a portion of open sea and, by induction, the activities carried out in such area, while onshore refers to land operations. It may also be used to identify activities to be carried out outside/inside of the country the project is implemented.

Olefins : family of hydrocarbon molecules including in particular ethylene and propylene, which constitutes the raw material for the manufacture of many plastics, rubbers and chemicals. They are characterized by the presence of a double covalent bond between carbon atoms.

PET : Polyethylene Terephthalate. Thermoplastic polymer widely used for fibres, films and bottles manufacture.

Polyolefins : polymers produced from simple olefins as a monomers. Prevalent types of polyolefins are polypropylene and polyethylene. Polyolefins are thermo-plastic materials.

Polyethylene (PE) : family of polyolefins. It is a semi-finished industrial material used as a raw material by companies that transform it into a range of finished goods. Around one third of the products in the "plastics" sector is made from polyethylene On the basis of different ramification degrees there are different types of PE: high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE).

Polypropylene (PP) : family of polyolefins. Due to its exceptional properties, polypropylene is a plastic material used in a wide range of industries including automobile parts, household goods, fibres and films, etc.

PDH : Propane Dehydrogenation to produce propylene (see).

PTA : Purified Terephthalic Acid used to produce PET (see).

Paraxylene (PX) : hydrocarbon aromatic compound. PX is consumed in the polyester chain to produce PTA (see). Small amount of PX is used as a solvent and to produce herbicides.

Thermal cracking : the breaking up of heavy oil molecules into lighter fractions by the use of high temperature without the aid of a catalyst.

Turnkey project : see EPC.

Upstream/Downstream : the term upstream relates to operations of exploration, production and transportation in the oil and gas sector. The term downstream relates to the operation of refining, distribution and marketing in the petrochemical sector.

Urea : chemical compound derived from ammonia used mainly as nitrogen fertilizer and for the production of melamine and of urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins.